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Bone Marrow Transplant (Stem Cell Transplant)

Bone marrow transplant is the process of replacing diseased bone marrow with healthy cells. The most effective method of treating diseases is bone marrow transplantation. About 70 diseases and conditions are treated with a bone marrow transplant. In this procedure, healthy stem cells are transferred into the body through a vein through a catheter. These stem cells are transported to the bone marrow, where they produce new bone marrow cells and blood. Based on the stem cell donor, BMT is classified as autologous and allogeneic transplants.

Why should Turkey be preferred for bone marrow transplantation?

Turkey is the best choice for bone marrow treatments because of the ultra-modern technology and highly qualified doctors who make the procedures successful. Our doctors are certified and are among the best specialists in the world.

A bone marrow transplant can partially or completely cure a disease. If the transplant is successful, the patient can return to normal activities after recovery.  

As one of the most popular health tourism destinations in the world, Turkey is highly appreciated in the international arena as it offers the highest quality medical services.

  • Hospitals in Turkey provide quality health services to patients coming from abroad. In addition , the Turkish Ministry of Health frequently inspects hospitals and clinics to see if they have increased their cleanliness levels.

  • There are highly experienced and qualified health personnel who play a major role in Turkey's success in the field of health. Surgeons and doctors are aware of the latest technologies and developments in medical science.​

  • Our hospitals are well equipped and use advanced technology and materials. They tailor their treatment programs to the specific needs of patients.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is a spongy tissue found inside the bones and contains cells defined as hematopoietic or blood-forming stem cells. Bone marrow stem cells multiply and differentiate when necessary to form blood cells.

Blood Cells

Blood cells perform vital functions. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are responsible for carrying oxygen to the tissues and, as the name suggests, give the blood its red color. Platelets (thrombocytes) function to stop bleeding by providing clotting.

White blood cells (leukocytes) fight microbes and protect our body against all kinds of infections. They also perform the function of attacking and killing tumor cells. Numerical or functional disorders of these cells result in a wide variety of life-threatening diseases.

Most hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow, but hematopoietic stem cells are also found in the blood found in the umbilical cord.

Bone marrow transplantation

Bone marrow transplantation (Stem cell transplantation) is the process of giving stem cells from the patient himself or another person to the patient. In general, there are 2 types of transplants. The process of giving back their own stem cells is called 'autologous', the process of giving stem cells from another person is called 'allogeneic' transplant.

Allogeneic transplantation can be done from an identical twin (sygeneic) as well as from a perfectly matched mother, father, sibling or unrelated person. In recent years, transplants have also been made from semi-compatible family members. These transplants made from parents, semi-compatible siblings or children are also called haploidentic transplants.

Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation

Autologous (self-made) stem cell transplantation is the process of collecting and freezing the person's own stem cells and giving them back to the person after chemotherapy. Two things are intended here; The first is to destroy the patient's tumor cells hidden in the corner with high-dose chemotherapy, and the second is to save the stem cells from the effects of very high-dose chemotherapy given by excluding the stem cells.

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

The process of obtaining 'bone marrow' or 'environmental blood' stem cells from the patient's sibling, relatives or an unrelated donor is called allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

If the stem cells are obtained from the bone marrow, it is called 'bone marrow' transplantation, if obtained from circulating blood, 'environmental blood stem cell' transplantation, if obtained from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby, 'cord blood' is called stem cell transplantation, although all three are named as stem cells from the historical process. It is not wrong to say 'bone marrow transplant'.

Volunteer Donor (Donor)

Any person between the ages of 2 and 60 whose tissue group antigens are compatible with the patient can be a donor for stem cell and bone marrow transplantation.

A small amount of blood (2-4 ml) is taken from the donor for tissue group antigens, and tissue group compatibility is checked within 2-4 working days with special methods. If there is full compliance, the recipient is less likely to reject the stem cells.

A perfectly matched sibling is an ideal donor. However, only 25 to 35 percent of patients have an HLA-matched sibling. If a 10/10 compatible sibling is not found, transfer can be made from an 8/10 compatible sibling. If a compatible relative cannot be found, a fully compatible volunteer donor is sought from marrow banks.

KIT Unit

The bone marrow transplantation (transplantation) unit has a special ventilation system and protection conditions. The air in the rooms works with positive pressure and is constantly cleaned with a HEPA filter system.

The patient is not allowed to leave the room and unit. The length of stay varies between 15-30 days. This period varies according to the type of transplant, person to person and diseases. Isolation policies of SOE units may differ.

Trained nurses and auxiliary health personnel serve in the KIT unit.

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